Thursday, March 19, 2020

Defining Racial Prejudice

Defining Racial Prejudice Words such as racism, prejudice, and stereotype are often used interchangeably. While the definitions of these terms overlap, they actually mean different things. Racial prejudice, for instance, typically arises from race-based stereotypes. People of influence who prejudge others set the stage for institutional racism to occur. How does this happen? This overview of what racial prejudice is, why it’s dangerous and how to combat prejudice explains in detail. Defining Prejudice It’s difficult to discuss prejudice without clarifying what it is. The fourth edition of the American Heritage College Dictionary provides four meanings for the term- from â€Å"an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts† to â€Å"irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race or religion.† Both definitions apply to the experiences of ethnic minorities in Western society. Of course, the second definition sounds much more menacing than the first, but prejudice in either capacity has the potential to cause a great deal of damage. Likely because of his skin color, English professor and writer Moustafa Bayoumi says that strangers often ask him, â€Å"Where are you from?† When he answers that he was born in Switzerland, grew up in Canada and now lives in Brooklyn, he raises eyebrows. Why? Because the people doing the questioning have a preconceived idea about what Westerners generally and Americans particularly look like. They’re operating under the (erroneous) assumption that natives of the United States don’t have brown skin, black hair or names that aren’t English in origin. Bayoumi acknowledges that the people suspicious of him typically don’t â€Å"have any real malice in mind.† Still, they allow prejudice to guide them. While Bayoumi, a successful author, has taken the questions about his identity in stride, others deeply resent being told that their ancestral origins make them less American than others. Prejudice of this nature may not only lead to psychological t rauma but also to racial discrimination. Arguably no group demonstrates this more than Japanese Americans. Prejudice Begets Institutional Racism When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the U.S. public viewed Americans of Japanese descent suspiciously. Although many Japanese Americans had never stepped foot in Japan and knew only of the country from their parents and grandparents, the notion spread that the Nisei (second-generation Japanese Americans) were more loyal to the Japanese empire than to their birthplace- the United States. Acting with this idea in mind, the federal government decided to round up more than 110,000 Japanese Americans and place them in internment camps for fear that they would team up with Japan to plot additional attacks against the United States. No evidence suggested that Japanese Americans would commit treason against the U.S. and join forces with Japan. Without trial or due process, the Nisei were stripped of their civil liberties and forced into detention camps. The case of Japanese-American internment is one of the most egregious cases of racial prejudice leading to institutiona l racism. In 1988, the U.S. government issued a formal apology to Japanese Americans for this shameful chapter in history. Prejudice and Racial Profiling After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, Japanese Americans worked to prevent Muslim Americans from being treated how the Nisei and Issei were during World War II. Despite their efforts, hate crimes against Muslims or those perceived to be Muslim or Arab rose following the terrorist attacks. Americans of Arab origin face particular scrutiny on airlines and airports. On the tenth anniversary of 9/11, an Ohio housewife of Arab and Jewish background named Shoshanna Hebshi made international headlines after accusing Frontier Airlines of removing her from a flight simply because of her ethnicity and because she happened to be seated next to two South Asian men. She says that she never left her seat, spoke to other passengers or tinkered with suspicious devices during the flight. In other words, her removal from the plane was without warrant. She’d been racially profiled. â€Å"I believe in tolerance, acceptance and trying–as hard as it sometimes maybe–not to judge a person by the color of their skin or the way they dress,† she stated in a blog post. â€Å"I admit to having fallen to the traps of convention and have made judgments about people that are unfounded. †¦The real test will be if we decide to break free from our fears and hatred and truly try to be good people who practice compassion–even toward those who hate.† The Link Between Racial Prejudice and Stereotypes Prejudice and race-based stereotypes work hand in hand. Due to the pervasive stereotype that an all-American person is blonde and blue-eyed (or at the very least white), those who don’t fit the bill- such as Moustafa Bayoumi- are prejudged to be foreign or â€Å"other.† Never mind that this characterization of an all-American more aptly describes the Nordic population than individuals who are indigenous to the Americas or the diverse groups that make up the United States today. Combating Prejudice Unfortunately, racial stereotypes are so prevalent in Western society that even the very young exhibit signs of prejudice. Given this, it’s inevitable that the most open-minded of individuals will have a prejudiced thought on occasion. One needn’t act on prejudice, however. When President George W. Bush addressed the Republican National Convention in 2004, he called on schoolteachers not to give in to their preconceived ideas about students based on race and class. He singled out the principal of Gainesville Elementary School in Georgia for â€Å"challenging the soft bigotry of low expectations.†Ã‚  Although poor Hispanic children made up most of the student body, 90 percent of pupils there passed state tests in reading and math. â€Å"I believe every child can learn,† Bush said. Had school officials decided that the Gainesville students couldn’t learn because of their ethnic origin or socioeconomic status, institutional racism would have been the likely result. Administrators and teachers would not have worked to give the student body the best education possible, and Gainesville could’ve become yet another failing school. This is what makes prejudice such a threat.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How to pronounce Ma Ying-jeou (Ma Ying-jiu)

How to pronounce Ma Ying-jeou (Ma Ying-jiu) In this article, we will look at how to pronounce Ma Ying-jeou (traditional: é ¦ ¬Ã¨â€¹ ±Ã¤ ¹ , simplified: é © ¬Ã¨â€¹ ±Ã¤ ¹ ), which in Hanyu Pinyin would be MÇŽ YÄ «ng-jiÇ”. Since most students use Hanyu Pinyin for pronunciation, I will henceforth use that. Ma Ying-jiu was president of Taiwan (Republic of China) from 2008 to 2016. Below, I will first give you a quick and dirty way if you just want to have a rough idea how to pronounce the name. Then I’ll go through a more detailed description, including analysis of common learner errors. Pronouncing Names in Chinese Pronouncing Chinese names correctly can be very hard if you havent studied the language.  Ignoring or mispronouncing tones will just add to the confusion. These mistakes add up and often become so serious that a native speaker would fail to understand. Read more about how to pronounce Chinese names. How to Pronounce Ma Ying-jiu if Youve Never Studied Chinese Chinese names usually consist of three syllables, with the first being the family name and the last two the personal name. There are exceptions to this rule, but it holds true in a vast majority of cases. Thus, there are three syllables we need to deal with. Listen to the pronunciation here while reading the explanation. Repeat yourself! Ma - Pronounce as ma in markYing - Pronounce as Eng in EnglishJiu - Pronounce as Joe If you want want to have a go at the tones, they are low, high-flat and low (or dipping, see below). Note: This pronunciation is not correct pronunciation in Mandarin (though it is reasonably close). To really get it right, you need to learn some new sounds (see below). How to Actually Pronounce Ma Yingjiu If you study Mandarin, you should never ever rely on English approximations like those above. Those are meant for people who dont intend to learn the language! You have to understand the orthography, i.e. how the letters relate to the sounds. There are many traps and pitfalls in Pinyin you have to be familiar with. Now, lets look at the three syllables in more detail, including common learner errors: Ma  (third tone) - You are probably familiar with this sound if youve studied Mandarin since its often used to demonstrate tones and is very common. The m is easy to get right, but the a is harder. In general, the a in mark is too far back, but the a in man is too far forward. Somewhere in between. It is a very open sound, too.Ying  (first tone) - As you may have guessed already, this syllable was chosen to represent England and thereby English because they do sound quite similar. The i (which is spelt yi here) in Mandarin is pronounced with the tongue tip closer to the upper teeth than in English. Its as far up and forward ou can go, basically. It can almost sound like a soft j at times. The final can have an optional short schwa (as in English the). To get the right -ng, let your jaw drop and your tongue withdraw.Jiu (third tone) -This sound is tricky to get right. First, j is one of the hardest sounds to get right for native speakers of English. Its a voiceless unaspriated aff ricate, which means that there should be a soft t followed by a hissing sound. This should be pronounced in the same place as x, which means tongue tip touching the lower teeth ridge. iu is an abbreviation of iou. The i tends to overlap with the initial. The remaining part is somewhere in between jaw and joe, but note that the English j is quite different from Pinyin j.. The are some variations for these sounds, but Ma Ying-jiu (é © ¬Ã¨â€¹ ±Ã¤ ¹ ) can be written like this in IPA: ma jəŋ tÉ•ju Conclusion Now you know how to pronounce Ma Ying -jiu (é © ¬Ã¨â€¹ ±Ã¤ ¹ ). Did you find it hard? If you’re learning Mandarin, dont worry; there arent that many sounds. Once you’ve learnt the most common ones, learning to pronounce words (and names) will become much easier!

Saturday, February 15, 2020

POWER, POLITICS AND POLICY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

POWER, POLITICS AND POLICY - Essay Example By 1980s, the immigration policy of the United Kingdom had two spikes where there very serious controls to the entry as well as strict protection of the rights of minority groups. The two prongs had contradicting effects on the position of the immigrant communities as well as their children born in Britain. As a result, the decline in manufacturing caused difficulty in obtaining work permits for both unskilled and semi-skilled workers but easier for high skilled professional workers (Bauer, Lofstrom & Zimmermann 2001: Jones 1973). This means that the largest percentage of the immigrants was coming from America, who invaded the industries and the banking sector. Australia, New Zealand and South African citizens were entering the country by taking the advantage of family ties. People from the South Asian region such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh were entering the country as medical practitioners (Spencer 2002). The riots that took place in the year 1981 mostly occurred on racial lines. In the city of Brixton, which was the spiritual home of the afro-Caribbean community living in Britain, the rioting youth were claiming that the police were targeting black people believing that they were going to stop crime in the streets. There were also similar riots in the cities of Midlands and Liverpool (Steiner, Alston & Goodman 1996). In 1987, the appearance of British politics changed after the election of four politicians who were not white. This was the first time for this to happen during the same general election. Campaigners suggest that for equal representation of all people means that the number on non-white members in the House of Commons should at least be fifty-five. New legislation against discrimination in the year 2000 came in response made about the manner the police handled the 1993 murder of Stephen Lawrence who was a black teenager. After the collapse of

Sunday, February 2, 2020

The Prince of Los Cocuyos Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Prince of Los Cocuyos - Essay Example He is presented as a father, an older brother and domineering Abuela. All these personalities in real sense appeared to be part of me as a freshman. This was largely due to cultural diversity and above all naivety. Secondly, social-cultural mischief has been additional experience in the college as a freshman. Uncultured behaviors such as homosexuality, heterosexuality and lesbianism are some of the major experiences in colleges common to freshmen such as myself. The Prince of Los Cocuyos portrays all these vices through Riqui. Naturally, through this book, Riqui’s homosexuality greatly affected his personality. As a freshman, this book could not have been any better concerning its explanation of tolerance to different personalities we meet in this life. College life is an extremely challenging though enjoyable. For instances, in the college, I meet various personalities, which I must liberally scrutinize to be socially and psychologically upright throughout the entire college

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Essay --

B00454342 AFST/HIST 283A, Introduction to African History December 16, 2013 1. (a) Africans and Europeans had religious relations. The spread of Christianity was introduced by the Byzantines, specifically in the Horn of Africa and the Nile Valley. They also had political and economic relations. When the European countries and empires, such as the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, interest in Africa increased, they began to impose their rule on Africa. Europeans saw an opportunity for personal benefits in Africa because of its plethora of natural resources. These empires practiced mercantilism. European nations were the mother countries of Africa. The Europeans would use the colony for natural recourses and once these resources were obtained they would produce goods to sell back to the colonies. Another economic relation between the two was slavery. During the Atlantic Slave Trade, Europeans would buy and sell slaves from Africa. This also resulted in sexual relations between Africans and Europeans, resulting in mixed races. (b) In North and West Africa the Asians and Africans had religious, political, and economic relationships. The trade routes between Asia and North Africa are ancient due to the accessibility through the Suez Canal and the Bab el Mandeb. These trade routes allowed culture, traditions, religion, and ideas to culturally diffuse between the two countries. Religiously, the spread of Islam was mainly due to the expansion of the Muslim political system. Muslims were seen as liberators from the harsh rule of the Byzantines, so the Africans welcomed them. The Muslim government in North Africa allowed religious freedom. 2. (a) African Traditional Religions (ATRs) are pantheistic. The power of a god is manifeste... ... literate and was educated about the world. These elites formed social organizations, independent churches, and newspapers. Once independence was achieved Africans struggled taking control of the economy because they had no prior training, but politically they had some success. Therefore, African poverty was a result of colonial exploitation by the capitalist west. They became very dependent on trade, specifically imports, many of which came from their previous colonizers. However, colonization and decolonization expanded connections between Africans and the world beyond its borders. After decolonization, Africans increased their mobility out of the continent, furthering the cultural diffusion and Westernization of their customs, traditions, and beliefs. They also have altered the cultures of other peoples by influencing aspects of culture such as music and sports.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Eclipse Aviation Case Study

Eclipse Aviation is a big private jet manufacturer, who does not create new jet aircrafts, but also new jet customers. Their aim is to offer the convenience, performance and safety of private jet travel to be available to more people but not only the elites. So their offers on products are more likely to be affordable, easy to own, easy to operate, but with nice performance capabilities previously found only in military and commercial aircraft.The company seems to have a good idea, but the reality does not go to the right direction. Eclipse Aviation was judged to be bankrupt by the Federal Bankruptcy Court of the United States in 2009. Bankruptcy documents indicated that a total of USD 702. 6 million was owed. After the bankruptcy, the assets were bought by a new company, Eclipse Aerospace, to continue its business. The bankruptcy of the company was due to the problem of the market.The market was expected to have a nice performance, but finally it didn’t develop as well as it was expected. At the same time, many of the startups like Eclipse entered the market. At this point, the rivalry of the competitors was quite high in the market. The current aviation market does not perform well either. According to the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA), the total worldwide aviation shipments fell by 2. 1% to 369 units in the first quarter of 2012, compared with 377 in the first quarter of 2011.Eclipse has not publicized its orders of the new aircraft, Eclipse 550, of the first quarter of 2011, but according the datasets of its nearest competitors – Embraer Phenom 100 and Cessna Mustang, they didn’t perform well on the market at the beginning of the year. Both of them only delivered 4 and 7 of their lightest jets, compared to the number of 41 and 43 in the first quarter in 2011. As the market seems to have a great uncertainty, I don’t think that it would be a good idea to invest in this startup.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Development Of Individualism And Humanism - 1804 Words

Jack Woodward AP Euro/ Period 1 9-1/17 1: One broad theme of this chapter is the development of individualism and humanism, and how they shaped the Renaissance. These beliefs changed and shaped the renaissance because they supported the idea of allowing individuals to choose their faith in religion and their jobs. For example, the time of humanism and individualism during the renaissance inspired others such as Plato to teach the best way to define something and Baldassare Castiglione to write the courtier. It also taught people the importance of being independent. Before humanism and individualism people believed their lives were predetermined and it was only working and fighting, because they were told their life was predetermined†¦show more content†¦3: The concepts of secularism, individualism, and humanism, were all necessary during the Renaissance because it emphasizes the learning of Greek and Roman history as well as human behavior and the importance of focusing yourself. Humanism led people to believe th at their life wasn’t predetermined and that they didn t have worship god. They were able to learn in schools and become whatever they pleased. They also allowed to take interest in hobbies and passions such as painting or music. People became less concerned with about their beliefs and god and started focusing more on their own problems. They became more focused on their own wants and needs and decided to do what they wanted. People soon gave up on worshipping god by replacing it with secularism, humanism and individualism. They also began to congratulate themselves and others on work instead of god. 4: Artistic greatness manifested during the Renaissance because of humanism, wealthiness and power. Humanism had a great impact because it encouraged people to focus more on themselves then on the will of god. This caused schools and classes for teaching art to form as well as freedom of job choice which created careers for a lot of well known artists. Another factor to the increase in art was rich families with power. They began to pay for art and education for painting, instead of spending it for the war. Another boost they gave to art was buying painters to paint for them andShow MoreRelatedThe Renaissance Essay1164 Words   |  5 Pagestransformation from the Medieval outlook. Secularism humanism and individualism were three aspects of life that appeared in the Renaissance and each of those three aspects had a great impact on the socio-economic and political structure of the era. During the Renaissance, the concept of individualism emerged. It stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and full development of one’s capabilities and talents. During the Middle Ages individualism was highly abandoned. Almost any idea deviating fromRead MoreThe Renaissance Prince Essay853 Words   |  4 Pageschurch controlling the land, although the church would still have a hand in government. 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